In this work, a team observed normal tissue development throughout Tfpi-/- embryos except in the central nervous system. The central nervous system displayed stunted brain growth, delayed development of the meninges, and severe vascular pathology characterized by the formation of glomeruloid bodies surrounding areas of cellular death, fibrin deposition, and hemorrhage.
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) inhibits proteases in the blood coagulation cascade that lead to the production of thrombin, including prothrombinase (factor Xa [FXa]/FVa), the catalytic complex that directly generates thrombin. Thus, TFPI and FV are directly linked in regulating the procoagulant response. Studies using knockout mice indicate that TFPI and FV are necessary for embryogenesis, but their contributions to vascular development are unclear. We performed extensive histological analyses of Tfpi-/- and Tfpi-/-F5-/- mouse embryos to investigate the importance of the interplay between TFPI and FV in regulating hemostasis and vascular development during embryogenesis. We observed normal tissue development throughout Tfpi-/- embryos, except in the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS displayed stunted brain growth, delayed development of the meninges, and severe vascular pathology characterized by the formation of glomeruloid bodies surrounding areas of cellular death, fibrin deposition, and hemorrhage. Removing FV from Tfpi-/- embryos completely ameliorated their brain pathology, suggesting that TFPI dampens FV-dependent procoagulant activity in a manner that modulates cerebrovascular development. Thus, we have identified a previously unrecognized role for TFPI activity within the CNS. This TFPI activity likely diminishes an effect of excess thrombin activity on signaling pathways that control cerebral vascular development.
How MoticEasyScan was used:
A MoticEasyScan imaging system scanned immunohistochemistry slides.